# Roman Numerals - Rules, Chart | What Are Roman Numerals?

While you imagine numericals at present, the first thing that springs to mind is the decimal method we use daily. This system, however, is not the single fashion to depict numbers. There are a lot of approaches utilized by distinct cultures worldwide that use all sorts of symbols. Classified among many one of the system is Roman numbers.

Since ancient Rome, Roman numerals have been a method of expressing numbers utilizing a combination of characters from the Latin alphabet. It persisted throughout the Middle Ages and the modern day, to the extend it is still educated in school, which is perhaps why you have stumbled upon this article.

Today, we are going to walkthrough Roman numerals, definition, how they work, and how to convert Roman numerals to regular numbers.

## What Are Roman Numerals?

First, let's look at a quick look at the past of Roman numbers. Roman numericals were initially used by the ancient Romans, as you may have expected from the name. They were employed in many angles of the Roman world, consisting of trade, architecture, and even warfare.

Nowadays, its main use is primarily attributed to aesthetic reasons. You may have seen Roman numerals as hour marks on a clock, chapter numbers, page numbering, copyright dates, or in film sequels (e.g., The Godfather Part II).

The Roman number approach consist of numericals utilizing a blend of characters from the Latin alphabet. Letters are mixed to create groups that depict numbers. Seven alphabets, I, V, X, L, C, D, and M, symbolizes the numbers 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, and 1000, separately. You can then combine these numbers to depict any value in the number system.

### Meaning of the Roman numerals

Although the decimal system is founded on the ideas of place value, Roman numbers are based on linear and subtractive principles. This refers that a Roman number's numeric values are established on the sum of the values of its particular parts. Another key distinction is that the decimal system is based on the number 10. In contrast, Roman numerals are established on the numericals 1 (I), 5 (V) and 10 (X).

### Examples

Let's take a look at a few hands-on examples of Roman numbers.

The video game street fighter IV was released in arcades way back in 2008. If we take a look at the numericals in the title, we see it has a V in it. This is because the numerical 5 in Roman numerals is described by the alphabet V. Preceded by it is an I, or 1. Therefore, we grasp that this is the 4th entry in the series utilizing the characteristics we will discuss further ahead.

The movie Star Wars Episode VI was the latest to enter the original trilogy. Observing the value portrayed, it contains a V followed by an I. Therefore, we will sum a 1 to the value of V, which is 5, concluding this Star Wars movie is the 6th to enter the franchise.

## Roman Numerals Chart

To read Roman numerals, it is crucial to comprehend the numeric value of all the letters. To assist you make this operation easy, here is a chart with every Latin alphabets with allocated numeric values.

Decimal Number | Roman Numeral |

1 | I |

2 | II |

3 | III |

4 | IV |

5 | V |

6 | VI |

7 | VII |

8 | VIII |

9 | IX |

10 | X |

11 | XI |

12 | XII |

13 | XIII |

14 | XIV |

15 | XV |

16 | XVI |

17 | XVII |

18 | XVIII |

19 | XIX |

20 | XX |

21 | XXI |

22 | XXII |

23 | XXIII |

24 | XXIV |

25 | XXV |

26 | XXVI |

27 | XXVII |

28 | XXVIII |

29 | XXIX |

30 | XXX |

31 | XXXI |

32 | XXXII |

33 | XXXIII |

34 | XXXIV |

35 | XXXV |

36 | XXXVI |

37 | XXXVII |

38 | XXXVIII |

39 | XXXIX |

40 | XL |

41 | XLI |

42 | XLII |

43 | XLIII |

44 | XLIV |

45 | XLV |

46 | XLVI |

47 | XLVII |

48 | XLVIII |

49 | XLIX |

50 | L |

51 | LI |

52 | LII |

53 | LIII |

54 | LIV |

55 | LV |

56 | LVI |

57 | LVII |

58 | LVIII |

59 | LIX |

60 | LX |

61 | LXI |

62 | LXII |

63 | LXIII |

64 | LXIV |

65 | LXV |

66 | LXVI |

67 | LXVII |

68 | LXVIII |

69 | LXIX |

70 | LXX |

71 | LXXI |

72 | LXXII |

73 | LXXIII |

74 | LXXIV |

75 | LXXV |

76 | LXXVI |

77 | LXXVII |

78 | LXXVIII |

79 | LXXIX |

80 | LXXX |

81 | LXXXI |

82 | LXXXII |

83 | LXXXIII |

84 | LXXXIV |

85 | LXXXV |

86 | LXXXVI |

87 | LXXXVII |

88 | LXXXVIII |

89 | LXXXIX |

90 | XC |

91 | XCI |

92 | XCII |

93 | XCIII |

94 | XCIV |

95 | XCV |

96 | XCVI |

97 | XCVII |

98 | XCVIII |

99 | XCIX |

100 | C |

200 | CC |

300 | CCC |

400 | CD |

500 | D |

600 | DC |

700 | DCC |

800 | DCCC |

900 | CM |

1000 | M |

## How to Convert from Roman Numerals to Regular Numbers

Since we have the handy table of Roman numbers, we can utilize that information to change numbers back and forth promptly. Following these steps, you will convert these values any time you want.

### Steps to Transform Roman numerals to Everyday Numbers

To change Roman numerals to everyday numericals, we will use the additive and subtractive principles we went through.

Begin with the leftmost Roman numerical in the group.

If the Roman numeral to its right is smaller in value, then sum the two values.

If the Roman numerical to its right is more in value, deduct the Roman number on the right out of the Roman numeral to its left.

All you should do now is replicate this process until you arrive at the end of the Roman numeral group.

Let's take a look how you can convert Roman numbers with a few examples.

### Example 1

Take a look at the Roman numeral LXXVI.

Start at the leftmost Roman number, that is L or 50.

The Roman numeral to its right is X or 10. Because 10 is less than 50, we add the both values and get 60.

The Roman numeral to the right of X is X again. We add 10 to 60 and get 70.

The Roman numeral to the right of X is V or 5. Since 5 is less than 70, we add the both values and the result is 75.

The Roman numeral to the right of V is I or 1. Since 1 is less than 75, we sum the two values and we find 76.

We cease here at the end of the Roman numeral group. Consequently, the Roman numeral LXXVI is as same as the regular number 76.

### Example 2

Study the Roman numeral MCMIII.

Start at the leftmost Roman numeral, that is M or 1000.

The Roman number to its right is C or 100. Considering 100 is less than 1000, and it is ensued by an M, this value means 900.

The Roman numeral to the right of M is I or 1. Since 1 is less than 1900, we sum the both values and the result is 1901.

The Roman number to the right of I is I again. We sum 1 to 1901 and we find 1902.

The Roman numeral to the right of I is I again. We sum 1 to 1902 and get 1903.

Given that we have reached the end of the Roman numeral group, we stop here with our result. Thus, the Roman numeral MCMIII is equal to the decimal number 1903.

With this knowledge and a some practice, you will convert Roman numbers to regular numbers like a pro!

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